So if you are reading this you have probably worked at events or have had some management responsibility for crowd safety at events and have worked at a number of these. As part of your knowledge of and management of crowds, you will be familiar with crowd dynamics, density and the maths that supports this. However this is just part of the Crowd Management jigsaw.
So, I have a question for you! Do you know how a crowd thinks, interacts, relates and responds to the behaviours of individuals and groups within the crowd? These pieces of the jigsaw are essential tools for you to consider and learn from to avoid crowd failures leading to injury or even fatality.
I have been privileged in my studies to have sat in on lectures by experts in the field of crowd psychology. What follows is a video resource file of these experts in their subjects to support you. I hope you will gain a better understanding of this fascinating area of crowd management.
Crowds and Identities: John Drury’s Research Group
- Alnabulsi, H., & Drury, J. (2014). Social identification moderates the effect of crowd density on safety at the Hajj. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(25), 9091-9096. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1404953111
- Ball, R., & Drury, J. (2012). Representing the riots: The (mis)use of statistics to sustain ideological explanation. Radical Statistics, 106, 4-21.
- Carter, H., Drury, J., Amlot, R., Rubin, G. J., & Williams, R. (2014). Effective responder communication improves efficiency and psychological outcomes in a mass decontamination field experiment: Implications for public behaviour in the event of a chemical incident. PLoS One 9(3): e89846. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089846
- Carter, H., Drury, J., Amlôt, R., Rubin, G. J., & Williams, R. (2015). Effective responder communication, perceived responder legitimacy and group identification predict public cooperation and compliance in a mass decontamination visualisation experiment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 45, 173–189. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12286
- Carter, H., Drury, J., Rubin, G. J., Williams, R., & Amlôt, R. (2015). Applying crowd psychology to develop recommendations for the management of mass decontamination. Health Security, 13(1), 45-53. doi:10.1089/hs.2014.0061
- Drury, J., Brown, R., González, R., & Miranda, D. (2015). Emergent social identity and observing social support predict social support provided by survivors in a disaster: Solidarity in the 2010 Chile earthquake. European Journal of Social Psychology doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2146
- Drury, J., Cocking, C., & Reicher, S. (2009). Everyone for themselves? A comparative study of crowd solidarity among emergency survivors. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48, 487-506.
- Drury, J., Cocking, C., & Reicher, S. (2009). The nature of collective resilience: Survivor reactions to the 2005 London bombings. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 27, 66-95.
- Drury, J., Novelli, D., & Stott, C. (2015). Managing to avert disaster: Explaining collective resilience at an outdoor music event. European Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 533–547. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2108
- Drury, J., Novelli, D., & Stott, C. (2013). Psychological disaster myths in the perception and management of mass emergencies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.43, 2259–2270. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12176
- Drury, J., & Reicher, S. (2009). Collective psychological empowerment as a model of social change: Researching crowds and power. Journal of Social Issues, 65, 707-725.
- Drury, J., & Reicher, S. (2005). Explaining enduring empowerment: A comparative study of collective action and psychological outcomes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 35-58.
- Drury, J., Reicher, S., & Stott, C. (2003). Transforming the boundaries of collective identity: From the “local” anti-road campaign to “global” resistance? Social Movement Studies, 2, 191-212.
- Novelli, D., Drury, J., Reicher, S., & Stott, C. (2013). Crowdedness mediates the effect of social identification on positive emotion in a crowd: A survey of two crowd events. PLoS ONE 8(11): e78983. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078983
- Templeton, A., Drury, J., & Philippides, A. (2015). From mindless masses to small groups: Conceptualising collective behaviour in crowd modelling. Review of General Psychology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000032
- Vezzali, L., Drury, J., Cadamuro, A., & Versari, A. (2015). Sharing distress increases helping and contact intentions via one-group representation and inclusion of the other in the self: Children’s prosocial behaviour after an earthquake. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. doi: 10.1177/136843021559049
- Drury, J. (2014). Crowd psychology. In T. Teo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of critical psychology (pp. 341-344). New York: Springer.
- Drury, J. (2012). Collective resilience in mass emergencies and disasters: A social identity model. In J. Jetten, C. Haslam, & S. A. Haslam (Eds.), The social cure: Identity, health, and well-being (pp. 195-215). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
- Drury, J., Evripidou, A., & Van Zomeren, M. (2015). Empowerment: The intersection of identity and power in collective action. In D. Sindic, M. Barreto, & R. Costa-Lopes (Eds.), Power and identity (pp. 94-116). Psychology Press.
The Psychology of Crowd Dynamics
School of Psychology University of St. Andrews
DR CLIFFORD STOTT
- Stott, C., & Pearson, G. (2007). Football “hooliganism,” policing and the war on the “English disease.” London: Pennant Books.
- Reicher, S., Stott, C., Drury, J., Adang, O., Cronin, P., & Livingstone, A. (2007). Knowledge-based public order policing: Principles and practice. Policing, 1, 403-415.
- Stott, C. J., Adang, O. M., Livingstone, A., & Schreiber, M. (2008). Tackling football hooliganism: A quantitative study of public order, policing and crowd psychology. Psychology Public Policy and Law, 14(2), 115-141.
- Stott, C. J., Adang, O. M., Livingstone, A., & Schreiber, M. (2007). Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: Public order policing, social identity, intergroup dynamics and social change. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 75-100.
- Stott, C. J., & Drury, J. (2004). The importance of social structure and social interaction in stereotype consensus and content: Is the whole greater than the sum of its parts? European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 11-23.
- Stott, C. J., & Drury, J. (2000). Crowds, context and identity: Dynamic categorization processes in the “poll tax riot.” Human Relations, 53, 247-273.
- Stott, C. J., Hutchison, P., & Drury, J. (2001). “Hooligans” abroad? Inter-group dynamics, social identity and participation in collective “disorder” at the 1998 World Cup finals. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 359-384.
- Stott, C. J., & Reicher, S. D. (1998). Crowd action as inter-group process: Introducing the police perspective. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 509-529.
- Stott, C. J., & Reicher, S. D. (1998). How conflict escalates: The inter-group dynamics of collective football crowd “violence.” Sociology, 32, 353-377.
- Stott, C., Livingstone, A., & Hoggett, J. (2008). Policing football crowds in England and Wales: A model of “good practice”? Policing and Society, 18, 258-281.
- Stott, C., & Pearson, G. (2006). Football banning orders proportionality and public order policing. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 241-254.
Stephen David Reicher
Stephen Reicher is a Professor in the School of Psychology & Neuroscience at the University of St Andrews. His research interests focus on the issues of group behaviour and the individual-social relationship. More specifically, his recent research can be grouped into three areas. The first is an attempt to develop a model of crowd action that accounts for both social determination and social change. The second concerns the construction of social categories through language and action. The third concerns political rhetoric and mass mobilisation – especially around the issue of national identity. Currently, Professor Reicher is starting work on a Leverhulme funded project (jointly with Nick Hopkins of Lancaster University) looking at the impact of devolution on Scottish identity and social action in Scotland.
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
With a diverse background in helping individuals grow in skills and expertise through the training he delivers, nationally, and internationally, Steve brings a wide array of skills to Safe and Trained delivery to an ever growing market of companies. His experience in crowd safety strategy and implementation – as well as a creative flair and eye for detail – will provide a fantastic pool of skills that will help you grow in skills and work practice..
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